Bioteknologi Pangan: Sejarah, Manfaat dan Potensi Risiko

Alice Pramashinta

Abstract


Genetic Engineering (rekayasa genetika) pangan adalah ilmu yang melibatkan modifikasi genetik tumbuhan dan hewan. Hal ini telah lama dipraktekkan oleh petani sejak awal sejarah yang yang telah dikembangkan menggunakan teknologi pada saat ini. Beberapa makanan yang dikonsumsi saat ini ada yang berasal dari modifikasi rekayasa genetik atau mengandung bahan yang telah mengalami modifikasi gen. Rekayasa genetik pangan memiliki beberapa manfaat, namun teknologi ini diikuti dengan berbagai kontroversi. Beberapa potensi resiko yang muncul dari rekayasa genetik pagan antara lain perubahan kualitas gizi makanan, potensi toksisitas, kemungkinan resistensi antibiotik dari tanaman GM, potensi alergenitas dan carcinogenicity karena mengkonsumsi makanan GM, pencemaran lingkunagn, tidak sengaja transfer gen pada tanaman liar, adanya kemungkinan penciptaan racun dan virus baru, ancaman terhadap keragaman genetik tanaman, kontroversi agama, budaya, dan etika. Manfaat yang diberikan rekayasa genetika pangan adalah perbaikan masa simpan dan organoleptik sayuran dan buah, peningkatan kualitas gizi dan manfaat kesehatan dalam makanan, meningkatkan protein dan karbohidrat makanan, meningkatkan kualitas lemak, meningkatkan kualitas dan kuantitas daging, susu, dan ternak, meningkatkan hasil panen yang tahan terhadap serangga, hama, penyakit, dan cuaca. Dalam review ini akan dibahas mengenai sejarah perkembangan ilmu bioteknologi untuk pangan serta manfaat dan potensi risiko yang mungkin ditimbulkan dari penggunaan teknologi ini.


Keywords


bioteknologi, pangan, fermentasi, rekayasa genetik, DNA

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17728/jatp.v3i1.34

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